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Nissan Ariya

A Deep Dive into the Nissan ARIYA's Liquid-Cooled Battery System

Published on Jun 7, 2023 by Electric Expert

Introduction to the ARIYA Battery System

The Nissan ARIYA has emerged as a significant player in the electric vehicle (EV) market, showcasing advanced technology and innovation. As the demand for electric vehicles continues to rise, it is crucial to understand the key features that set the ARIYA apart from its competitors. In this blog post, we will delve into the intricacies of the ARIYA's liquid-cooled battery system and explore its impact on the vehicle's performance, efficiency, and overall driving experience.


Throughout this blog post, we will examine various aspects of the ARIYA's battery system, including its structural and thermal design, engineering considerations, the battery management system (BMS), and Nissan's approach to thermal management. Additionally, we will discuss the transition from the CHAdeMO charging standard to the Combined Charging System (CCS) and highlight Nissan's charging infrastructure in the United States.


Battery Options in the Nissan ARIYA

The Nissan ARIYA offers two battery pack options, providing customers with choices that suit their driving preferences and range requirements. Let's take a closer look at these battery options and the distinctions between them.

  1. 63kWh Battery Pack (66kWh total): The ARIYA's 63kWh battery pack provides a total energy capacity of 66kWh. This pack is designed to offer a balance between range and performance, making it suitable for daily commuting and urban driving. It delivers ample power while ensuring efficient energy usage.

Key specifications of the 63kWh battery pack:

  • Usable energy: 63kWh
  • Weight: 441kg
  • Charge time: 10 to 80% in 30 minutes
  • Cooling system: liquid
  1. 87kWh Battery Pack (91kWh total): For those seeking an extended driving range and higher performance capabilities, the ARIYA offers an 87kWh battery pack, providing a total energy capacity of 91kWh. This larger pack is ideal for longer trips and offers enhanced power for a more exhilarating driving experience.

Key specifications of the 87kWh battery pack:

  • Usable energy: 87kWh
  • Weight: 610kg
  • S and P configuration:
  • Charge time: 10 to 80% in 30 minutes
  • Cooling system: liquid

It's important to note that both battery packs feature a liquid cooling system, which plays a crucial role in maintaining optimal battery temperatures for improved performance and longevity.


In addition to the battery size options, the ARIYA is available in both 2WD and 4WD variants. The weight difference between these variants should be considered, as it can affect the vehicle's handling and overall driving dynamics. By understanding the battery options and drivetrain variants, customers can make informed decisions based on their specific needs and preferences.

In the next section, we will delve into the structural and thermal design of the ARIYA's battery packs, exploring Nissan's innovative approach to enhancing performance and managing thermal conditions within the vehicle.


Structural and Thermal Design of the ARIYA's Battery Packs

Nissan has taken a strategic approach to reduce complexity in the design of the ARIYA's battery packs. One notable feature is the common lower section shared between the two pack sizes: 63kWh (66kWh total) and 87kWh (91kWh total) [1]. This design choice allows for efficient manufacturing and simplifies the production process.


To accommodate the additional energy in the larger battery pack, Nissan has cleverly positioned it under the second-row passenger seats. This placement optimizes space utilization within the vehicle while maintaining the structural integrity and stability of the ARIYA.


Cooling System

A crucial aspect of the ARIYA's battery system is its cooling system, which plays a vital role in thermal management. Nissan has integrated the cooling system into the aluminum extruded baseplate of the battery packs. This integration ensures effective heat dissipation and temperature regulation throughout the battery cells, enhancing their performance and longevity.

The coolant pipework within the battery pack enables individual control of temperature in each module. By implementing casings for the pipework, Nissan ensures precise temperature management and improved overall system efficiency. This design feature also contributes to the safety and reliability of the battery packs.


While the aluminum extruded baseplate facilitates efficient heat transfer, the conductivity of aluminum also results in some heat exchange with the environment. Therefore, Nissan has taken measures to mitigate this effect by utilizing the cavity around the coolant channels as a form of thermal isolation. These design considerations contribute to maintaining the battery packs within the optimal temperature range.


Nissan's engineering team has faced various challenges in designing the ARIYA's battery packs, and they have implemented innovative solutions to overcome them. Rerouting of various pipes and wiring, such as the water pipe for the rear motor and the high-voltage wiring harness, has allowed for efficient packaging and integration of front-to-rear services.


Structural Design Considerations

The structural design of the ARIYA's battery packs has also been carefully considered. The underfloor structure of the vehicle has been optimized to accommodate the battery storage while ensuring temperature control without compromising the vehicle's strength and rigidity. Additionally, connecting the high-rigidity battery package to the front and rear parts of the body enhances the torsional rigidity of the entire vehicle, improving overall stability and responsiveness.


The Engineering behind the Battery Packs

The 2022 Nissan Ariya comes with two different sizes of battery packs - 63kWh (66kWh total) and 87kWh (91kWh total). Both packs use the same design for the lower section, reducing complexity and simplifying manufacturing. This consistency in design also plays a crucial role in facilitating a uniform cooling process across different battery sizes.


Gravimetric Energy Density

One of the standout metrics of these battery packs is their gravimetric energy density, which sits at 150Wh/kg for the 66kWh pack and slightly less at 148Wh/kg for the 91kWh pack. Despite the variation in pack sizes, both variants have a charge time from 10 to 80% in just 30 minutes, showcasing the vehicle's efficient charging capacity.


Cooling System

In terms of engineering challenges, the Ariya's battery cooling system posed a significant hurdle. To combat this, Nissan opted for a liquid cooling system integrated into the aluminum extruded baseplate. The baseplate's high thermal conductivity and the clever placement of flow channels around the module enable efficient heat exchange with the environment. However, the routing of coolant presented another challenge. By choosing to flow the coolant down one half of the pack before returning it through the other half, Nissan faced a potential significant delta T issue. But by designing flow channels that were adjacent and using the aluminum's good conductivity, they managed to reduce this delta T effectively.


Floor Tunnel Challenge

Another challenge was the lack of a floor tunnel in the Ariya, making the packaging of front-to-rear services more complex. Innovative solutions included rerouting the brake pipe in the gap between the battery pack and side sill, changing the high-voltage wiring harness connected to the rear motor inverter to a bus bar and rerouting it within the high-voltage battery pack, and passing the water pipe for the rear motor through the side rail extrusion of the battery pack.


To integrate the battery pack into the car's structure while enhancing the vehicle's overall performance, Nissan conducted a holistic review of the underfloor structure for battery storage. Cross members were embedded into the structure, enabling the development of a body-integrated battery package with high rigidity and the mounting of an ultrathin large capacity battery without compromising the strength and rigidity of the vehicle body. This integration improved the torsional rigidity of the entire vehicle body, increased the lateral stiffness of the suspension member fastening point, and improved steering responsiveness.


Despite the scarcity of detailed specifications at this point, it's clear that Nissan has brought some innovative solutions to the table in designing the Ariya's battery packs. From the efficient cooling system and the strategic rerouting of pipes and wiring to the integration of the pack into the vehicle structure, Nissan has truly taken a deep dive into the engineering behind the Ariya's battery system. The process may still involve some uncertainties, but the resulting vehicle promises high performance, superior energy efficiency, and a glimpse into the future of electric vehicle technology.


Nissan Ariya's Battery Pack Specifications

Metrics 63kWh Battery Pack 87kWh Battery Pack
Total Energy 66kWh 91kWh
Usable Energy 63kWh 87kWh
Weight 441kg 610kg
Cooling System Liquid Liquid
Charge Time (10-80%) 30 minutes 30 minutes
Gravimetric Energy Density (pack) 150Wh/kg 148Wh/kg
Structure Integrated into vehicle structure Integrated into vehicle structure

Key Engineering Challenges and Solutions

  • Cooling System: The cooling system was a major engineering challenge due to the efficient heat exchange requirements. Nissan addressed this by implementing a liquid cooling system integrated into the aluminum extruded baseplate.

  • Routing of Coolant: Flowing the coolant down one half of the pack and then returning it through the other half could have resulted in a significant delta T. This was mitigated by designing adjacent flow channels and leveraging the aluminum's high conductivity to reduce the delta T.

  • Packaging of Front-to-Rear Services: The absence of a floor tunnel required clever rerouting solutions for different systems. Solutions included:

    • Rerouting the brake pipe in the gap between the battery pack and side sill.
    • Changing the high-voltage wiring harness connected to the rear motor inverter to a bus bar and rerouting it within the high-voltage battery pack.
    • Passing the water pipe for the rear motor through the side rail extrusion of the battery pack.

  • Battery Pack Integration: To increase interior space while maintaining the necessary battery capacity, cross members were embedded in the structure. This resulted in a body-integrated battery package with high rigidity, and improved vehicle body's torsional rigidity and steering responsiveness.

Battery Management System (BMS)

The Nissan Ariya's state-of-the-art Battery Management System (BMS) plays an instrumental role in optimizing the performance and longevity of its batteries. It manages a wide array of parameters, maintaining efficient operation, and ensuring the safety of the vehicle and its occupants.

Key Functions of the BMS:

  1. Monitoring: The BMS constantly keeps an eye on various parameters such as the State of Charge (SoC), temperature, and health of the battery.

  2. Temperature Management: With the help of an active thermal management system, the BMS ensures the battery pack stays within an optimal temperature range during driving or charging. This system operates independently from the cabin heating system, mitigating the influence of external temperature variations.

  3. Optimizing Charging: The BMS oversees the charging process to ensure that the batteries are charged efficiently and safely. It uses a customer-minded, performance-oriented software profile to sustain higher charging rates over a longer period. With the shift from CHAdeMO to the Combined Charging System (CCS) in Ariya, the BMS has adapted to support a wider availability of charging options.

  4. Safety: The BMS system protects the battery and, by extension, the vehicle, from issues such as overcharging, overheating, and excessive discharge.

The following table outlines key specifications for the two battery pack sizes available in the Nissan Ariya:


Specification 63kWh Battery 87kWh Battery
Total Energy 66kWh 91kWh
Usable Energy 63kWh 87kWh
Weight 441kg 610kg
Cooling System Liquid Liquid
Charge Time 10 to 80% in 30 mins 10 to 80% in 30 mins
Estimated Range 304 miles (489 km) Will depend on model


The BMS in the Ariya not only safeguards battery performance but also contributes to the vehicle's durability and warranty. As the thermal and structural elements of the Nissan Ariya's design become more apparent, the remarkable role of the BMS in managing this vehicle's impressive capabilities becomes even clearer.


Nissan’s Approach to Thermal Management

The Nissan ARIYA, building upon the foundational experience garnered from the Nissan LEAF, has enhanced its battery thermal management system. It has evolved from the air-cooled system in the LEAF to a more engineered cooling and heating approach, implementing a liquid-cooled thermal management system for optimal battery performance.

Shift from Simple Air-Cooled System to Engineered Cooling and Heating

The Nissan LEAF used a simple air-cooled system for its battery pack, which was sufficient for its performance specifications. However, the Nissan ARIYA, with more potent battery packs of 63kWh and 87kWh, required a more sophisticated approach.

The ARIYA features a liquid-cooling system integrated into an aluminium extruded baseplate. The flow channels connect well to the upper surface of the extrusion, with the battery module thermally bonded to the surface. The thermal isolation is further enhanced by the cavity surrounding the flow channel. However, due to the high heat conductivity of aluminium, some heat exchange with the environment is inevitable, which might affect the cooling efficiency.

The coolant pipework for the battery temperature management system features individual casings for each module, providing precise control over temperature conditions in each segment. This innovative system helps maintain the high-voltage, liquid-cooled battery pack at an optimal temperature range during driving or charging.

Role of the Active Thermal Management System

The active thermal management system in the Nissan ARIYA ensures the high-voltage, liquid-cooled battery pack remains within the ideal temperature range, whether during driving or charging. This feature is crucial in extending the battery lifespan, maintaining the performance of the vehicle, and enabling higher charging rates over extended periods.

James Mastronardi, ARIYA’s vehicle performance development manager in the U.S., stated that the high-output battery of ARIYA warranted automatic heating and cooling from a thermal management system. This feature contributes to the high-performance specifications of the ARIYA, including its capability to accelerate from 0-60 mph in approximately five seconds.

Impact of HVAC System on the Driving Range

The ARIYA's HVAC system draws power from the high-voltage battery, although it operates independently from the battery thermal management system. However, Nissan has designed the system to minimize its impact on the vehicle's driving range.

Through the Nissan app and remote climate control, customers can pre-condition their vehicle to their ideal comfort temperature while it is parked and charging. This feature helps ensure that the HVAC system does not decrease the driving range when used.


The new HVAC system in ARIYA thus marks a significant evolution from the air-cooling system used in the Nissan LEAF, delivering enhanced performance while managing power usage effectively.


The Transition from CHAdeMO to the Combined Charging System (CCS)

One crucial aspect of the Nissan ARIYA that needs to be discussed is the company’s decision to transition from the CHAdeMO charging standard to the Combined Charging System (CCS). This move is likely to impact not only future Nissan electric vehicles (EVs) but also the charging infrastructure and the EV industry as a whole.


The CHAdeMO charging standard was introduced with Nissan's first EV, the Leaf, and has served its purpose well over the years. However, with the continuous evolution of charging systems and the wider availability of the CCS worldwide, Nissan decided to make the switch for the ARIYA. The main reasons behind this move include greater compatibility with a more extensive charging network, faster charging speeds, and the potential for vehicle-to-grid (V2G) technology.


The CCS offers several advantages over the CHAdeMO charging system, making it a more appealing choice for the Nissan ARIYA. Primarily, the CCS is becoming the global standard for electric vehicle fast charging, with a growing number of charging stations adopting this system. By choosing CCS, Nissan ensures that ARIYA owners have access to a more extensive network of charging stations, making long-distance travel more comfortable.


Another vital advantage of the CCS is its ability to deliver faster charging speeds compared to the CHAdeMO charging system. With CCS, the ARIYA can achieve a quick charge from 20-80% of battery capacity in just 35 minutes (63 kWh) or 40 minutes (87 kWh) at 130 kW. These faster charging times provide drivers with a more convenient and seamless EV ownership experience.


In addition to the benefits of wider availability and faster charging speeds, the adoption of the CCS standard by Nissan signals a forward-looking approach to the broader EV infrastructure. The CCS is designed to support newer technologies such as V2G, which allows electric vehicles to discharge their stored energy back into the electricity grid. By adopting the CCS, Nissan is demonstrating a commitment to embracing future technologies that will enhance not only the functionality of their vehicles but also their role in the broader energy infrastructure.


By transitioning from CHAdeMO to the CCS, Nissan ensures that the ARIYA can take advantage of these benefits and create a more appealing EV ownership experience for their customers. As part of this transition, Nissan has committed to updating its dealership fast chargers in the U.S. to support both Leaf and ARIYA models, easing the potential concerns of existing



In conclusion, the Nissan ARIYA has proven itself as a true innovator in battery technology, setting a new standard in the electric vehicle (EV) market. The ARIYA's innovative battery design, with two different packs offering 66kWh and 91kWh of total energy, caters to varying customer needs by providing a versatile EV experience. The sophisticated cooling system, integrated into the aluminum extruded baseplate, has improved efficiency while maintaining optimal battery temperature during driving and charging.


The battery pack's structural integration with the vehicle has also allowed for enhanced performance and improved rigidity, while maximizing interior space. The ARIYA's active thermal management system ensures steady performance and longevity of the high-voltage, liquid-cooled battery pack, making it a game-changer in EV technology.


With efficient charging capabilities and an impressive driving range up to 304 miles (489 km), the Nissan ARIYA is challenging conventional EV limitations. By adopting the Combined Charging System (CCS) instead of the previous CHAdeMO charging standard, the ARIYA further demonstrates Nissan's commitment to evolving and embracing industry advancements.

As we move into the future of electric vehicles, the Nissan ARIYA is setting an example for how innovative battery technology can revolutionize our driving experience. The vehicle's unprecedented combination of battery capacity, thermal management, structural integration, and charging infrastructure support positions the ARIYA as a leader in the rapidly growing EV market.

In our upcoming posts, we will dive deeper into the specifics of the ARIYA's battery technology, exploring topics such as cell make and model, cost analysis, warranty details, recycling procedures, and more. We will also take a closer look at how Nissan's advanced battery technology will shape the future of EVs, as the company continues to push the boundaries of innovation and redefine vehicles' performance capabilities and sustainability standards.

Until then, the Nissan ARIYA stands as an inspiring example of what the future holds for electric vehicles, bringing us one step closer to a cleaner, more efficient mode of transportation for all.

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